BugsCEP Home

BugsCEP Credits
Funding sources
Special thanks to...



BugsCEP currently has a very simple update strategy.

All updates will be made available when ready.

BugsCEP is essentially two files - a program and a database - which can be replaced with new versions when they are made available. Program updates are not a problem, and can just be copied over the old version. Database updates are more problematic in that they involve the user exporting any countsheets that they have added to their old copy, and then importing them into the new file. If demand and funds are sufficient a proper update system will be written.

Important updates to either the database or program will be made available separately as well as in combined packages. These will be posted on this website.


BugsCEP Credits

The current version of BugsCEP has been developed by, and is the copyright of:

Philip Buckland - programming, websites and statistics.

Paul Buckland - data entry and testing.

BugsCEP is fully documented in Phil's PhD thesis:

Buckland, P.I. (2007). "The Development and Implementation of Software for Palaeoenvironmental and Palaeoclimatological Research: The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP)". PhD thesis, Environmental Archaeology Lab., Department of Archaeology & Sámi Studies. University of Umeå, Sweden. Archaeology and Environment 23, 236 pp + CD. Available online: http://www.diva-portal.org/umu/abstract.xsql?dbid=1105


Funding sources

The Bugs project has been funded through a combination specific projects and the involvement of the team members in other research projects. Major contributors have been:

The Environmental Archaeology Lab, Umeå University (Sweden)

Northern Crossroads project - The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (Sweden)

The Leverhulme Trust (UK)

The University of Bournemouth (UK)

North Atlantic Biocultural Organisation (NABO) - National Science Foundation (USA)

The University of Sheffield (UK)


Special thanks to...
The following individuals, through either their involvement, specific data contributions, suggestions or work, have been exceptionally helpful in some aspect of BugsCEP's development (whether they realize it or not!):

Keith Alexander
Robert Angus
Arne Andersson
Allan Ashworth
Tim Atkinson
Simon Brewer
Stephen Brooks
Joan Buckland
Russell Coope
Andrew Duff
Roger Engelmark
Adrian Fowles
Malcolm Greenwood
Gunnar Gustavsson
Harry Kenward
Keith Kirby
Frank Koehler
Klaus Koch
Tom Korsman
Geoffrey Lemdahl
Anders Nilsson
Tina Nilsson
Johan Olofsson
Fredrik Olsson
Eva Panagiotakopulu
Dave Perry
Philippe Ponel
Mark Robinson
Jon Sadler
Peter Skidmore
Nicki Whitehouse
Umeå archaeology undergraduates 2001-2005

Tek-Tips Forum Members:

Previous Bugs developers:
Yuan Zhuo Don
Mike Rains
Jon Sadler
The Genesys Solutions MSc team 2000-2001

And last but not least all the data contributors whose text have been abstracted in BugsCEP, and without whom this project would not have been possible. (There are well over a thousand of them, so we'll not list them here).

Publications about, citing or using Bugs & BugsCEP

Please note that this is not a comprehensive list and that it will only be updated sporadically. Apologies also for the inconsistent formatting. This list includes a number of references to older incarnation of Bugs, including Bugs2000 and online material which may no longer be available. Please contact us should you wish to locate such legacy data.

Publications about/using the SEAD project can be found here. More palaeo-insect references can be found through QBIB.

If you use BugsCEP in a project or publication then please email us so that we can add you to the list!

  1. Abellán, P., Benetti, C.J., Angus, R.B. & Ribera, I. 2011. A review of Quaternary range shifts in European aquatic Coleoptera. Global Ecology and Biogeography, (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) (2011) 20, pp 87-100. http://molevol.cmima.csic.es/ribera/pdfs/abellan_etal2010_fossils.pdf
  2. Alexander, K. N. A. (2012). What do saproxylic (wood-decay) beetles really want? Conservation should be based on practical observation rather than unstable theory. Trees beyond the wood. Rotherham, I. D., Handley, C., Agnoletti, M. & Samojlik, T. Sheffield, Wildtrack Publ.: 33-46. (Acknowledged on p.43)
  3. Alexander, K. N. A. (2014). A review of the scarce and threatened beetles of Great Britain Buprestidae, Cantharidae, Cleridae, Dasytidae, Drilidae, Lampyridae, Lycidae, Lymexylidae, Malachiidae, Phloiophilidae and Trogossitidae. Species Status No.16. Natural England, Peterborough.
  4. Alexander, K. N. A. (2016). The British status of Silvanus bidentatus Fabricius (Silvanidae). The Coleopterist, 25, 135-138.
  5. Alexander, K. N. A. (2017). A review of the status of the beetles of Great Britain - The wood-boring beetles, spider beetles, woodworm, false powder-post beetles, hide beetles and their allies – Derodontidoidea (Derodontidae) and Bostrichoidea (Dermestidae, Bostrichidae and Ptinida)
  6. Alexander, K. N. A., Dodd, S. & Denton, J. S. (2014). A review of the scarce and threatened beetles of Great Britain. The darkling beetles and their allies Aderidae, Anthicidae, Colydiidae, Melandryidae, Meloidae, Mordellidae, Mycetophagidae, Mycteridae, Oedemeridae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Ripiphoridae, Salpingidae, Scraptiidae, Tenebrionidae & Tetratomidae (Tenebrionoidea less Ciidae). Natural England, Peterborough.
  7. Altherr, G.W. 2007. From genes to habitats – effects of urbanisation and urban areas on biodiversity. Inauguraldissertation zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der Philosophie vorgelegt der Philosophisch-Naturwissenschaflichen Fakultät der Universität Basel (PhD Thesis). http://edoc.unibas.ch/683/1/DissB_8084.pdf
  8. J. Arroyo, A. de la Riva-Caballero, J. C. Iturrondobeitia, J. M. Bermúdez de Castro, E. Carbonell, J. L. Arsuaga, C. Díez. 2007. Primera aproximacion a la Paleoentomología de los yacimientos de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, España): la fauna subfósil de Oribátidos (Acari, Oribatida). Graellsia, Vol 63, No 1 (2007):27-34 10.3989/graellsia.2007.v63.i1.77. http://graellsia.revistas.csic.es/index.php/graellsia/article/viewArticle/77
  9. Ashworth, A.C. 2001. Perspectives on Quaternary beetles and climate change. In, L. C. Gerhard, W. E. Harrison & B. M. Hanson (eds.) Geological perspectives of global climate change. American Association of Petroleum Geologists’ Studies in Geology, 47, 153-168.
  10. Bailey, Greg, Cassie Newland, Anna Nilsson, John Schofield, Steve Davis, and Adrian Myers 2009. Transit, Transition: Excavating J641 VUJ. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19(1):1-27.
  11. M.D. Bateman, P.C. Buckland, B. Chase, C.D. Frederick and G.D. Gaunt, (2008). The Late-Devensian proglacial Lake Humber: new evidence from littoral deposits at Ferrybridge, Yorkshire, England, Boreas 37, pp. 195–21
  12. Bain, Allison & King, Gary, 2011. Asylum for Wayward Immigrants: Historic Ports and Colonial Settlements in Northeast North America. Journal of the North Atlantic 2011 2 (sp1), 109-124. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3721/037.004.s101
  13. M. Bárta, A. Bezděk, 2008 "Beetles and the decline of the Old Kingdom: Climate change in ancient Egypt", in: H. Vymazalová, M. Bárta, eds., Chronology and Archaeology in Ancient Egypt (The Third Millennium B.C.). Proceedings of the Conference Held in Prague (June 11-14, 2007), Prague 2008, 214–222.
  14. Bertran, P., Allenet, G., Fourloubey, C., Leroyer, C., Limondin-Lozouet, N., Maazouzi, Z., ... & Detrain, L. (2009). Paleoenvironnements tardiglaciaires en Aquitaine: la sequence alluviale de la Brunetiere (Bergerac, France). Quaternaire (Paris), 20(2), 161.
  15. Bertran, P., Allenet, G., Brenet, M., Chadelle, J.-P., Dietsch-Sellami, M.-F., Hébrard, J.-P., Madelaine, G., Mercier, N., Pasquet, V., Ponel, P., Queffelec, A. & Sirieix, C. (2016). Last Glacial palaeoenvironments at Lascaux, southwest France, with special emphasis on MIS 4 (Ognon II interstadial). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 449: 149-165.
  16. Bertran, P., Allenet, G., Brenet, M., Chadelle, J. P., Dietsch-Sellami, M. F., Hébrard, J. P., ... & Queffelec, A. (2016). Last Glacial palaeoenvironments at Lascaux, southwest France, with special emphasis on MIS 4 (Ognon II interstadial). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 449, 149-165. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018216000730
  17. Boswijk, G. & Whitehouse, N.J. 2002. Pinus and Prostomis: a dendrochronological and palaeoentomological study of a mid-Holocene woodland in eastern England. The Holocene 12,5 (2002) pp. 585–596. http://www.ltrr.arizona.edu/webhome/rebecca/Fall2006/Fall%2006/journalClub/Boswijk2002.pdf
  18. Branch, N. P., Whitaker, J., Matthews, I., Young, D., Pritchard, O., Elias, S., & Denton, K. Examining the relationship between climate change and human activities in the wetlands of Ireland: Annual report; 5th December 2008 Irish National Strategic Archaeological Research (INSTAR) Programme 2008. http://www.heritagecouncil.ie/fileadmin/user_upload/INSTAR_Database/Climate_Change...Progress_Report_08.pdf
  19. Brewer, S, Jackson, ST, Williams, JW. 2012. Paleoecoinformatics: applying geohistorical data to ecological questions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(2):104-112. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534711002692
  20. Briant, M. & Bateman, M. 2009. Luminescence dating indicates radiocarbon age underestimation in late Pleistocene fluvial deposits from eastern England. Journal of Quaternary Science 24(8) 916–927. DOI: 10.1002/jqs.1258
  21. Briant, R.M., Bates, M.R., Boreham, S., Cameron, N.G., Coope, G.R., Field, M.H., Hatch, B.M., Holmes, J.A., Keen, D.H., Kilfeather, A.A. and Penkman, K.E., 2019. Early Ipswichian (last interglacial) sea level rise in the channel region: Stone Point Site of Special Scientific Interest, Hampshire, England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 130(1), pp.1-26.
  22. O'Brien, C., Elliott, L., Cameron, N., Gidney, L. & Davis, S. (2012). O'BRIEN, C., ELLIOTT, L., CAMERON, N., GIDNEY, L. & DAVIS, S. (2012) Plant macrofossils, wood, diatoms, faunal remains and insect analysis. In, P. Arrowsmith & D. Power, Roman Nantwich: a salt-making settlement. Excavations at Kingsley Fields 2002, 152-173 + cd appendix.
  23. Brooks, S. J., & Langdon, P. G. (2014). Summer temperature gradients in northwest Europe during the Lateglacial to early Holocene transition (15–8 ka BP) inferred from chironomid assemblages. Quaternary International, 341, 80-90.
  24. Brouwers, N., 2008. Analysis of the ecological principles underpinning forest landscape restoration: a case study of wood cricket (Nemobius sylvestris) on the Isle of Wight (UK). PhD Thesis (PhD). Bournemouth University. http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/10448/1/Brouwers,Niels_Ph.D._2008.pdf
  25. Brouwers, N.C., Newton, A.C. 2009. Movement rates of woodland invertebrates: a systematic review of empirical evidence. Insect Conserv Divers 2, 10-22.
  26. Buckland, P. C. 2009. Insect remains. In, C. Allen, Exchange and ritual at the riverside: Late Bronze Age life in the lower Witham valley at Washingborough, Lincolnshire, 107-112 + cd tables 5.11 & 5.14.
    Pre-Construct Archaeology (Lincoln), Monograph Series 1, Lincoln.
  27. Buckland, P.C. 2009. Insect remains. P. Daniel (ed.) Archaeological Excavations at Pode Hole Quarry: Bronze Age occupation of the Cambridgeshire fen-edge: 102-104. BAR British Series 484. Oxford: Archaeopress
  28. Buckland, P. C. An insect fauna from a block of daub from Heybridge Hall, Essex. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305496502_An_insect_fauna_from_a_block_of_daub_from_Heybridge_Hall_Essex
  29. Buckland, P.C., Buckland, P.I. & Hughes, D. 2005. Palaeoecological evidence for the Vera hypothesis?. In Hodder, K.H., Bullock, J.M., Buckland, P.C., & Kirby, K.J., Large herbivores in the wildwood and modern naturalistic grazing systems. English Nature Research Reports, No. 648.
  30. Buckland, P.C., Buckland, P.I. and Panagiotakopulu, E., 2018. Caught in a trap: landscape and climate implications of the insect fauna from a Roman well in Sherwood Forest. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 10(1), pp.125-140.
  31. Buckland, P.C., Edwards, E., Panagiotakopulu, E. & Schofield, E. 2008. Land management at the bishop's seat, Garðar, medieval Greenland. Antiquity, Vol 082, Issue 315. http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/buckland315/
  32. Buckland P.C., Edwards K.J., Panagiotakopulu E., Schofield J.E. 2009. Palaeoecological and historical evidence for manuring and irrigation at Garðar (Igaliku), Norse Eastern Settlement, Greenland. Holocene 19:105–116. doi: 10.1177/0959683608096602. http://sphol.highwire.org/content/19/1/105.abstract
  33. Buckland, P. C., Hey, D., O’Neill, R., & Tyers, I. The Conisbrough Estate and the southern boundary of Northumbria. Environmental and archaeological evidence from a late sixth/early seventh century structure and a later deer park boundary at Conisbrough, South Yorkshire. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paul...with.../32bfe50e73aa126aaf.pdf‎
  34. Buckland, P. C. & Panagiotakopulu, E. (2010) Reflections on North Atlantic Island Biogeography: a Quaternary entomological view. In, S.-A. Bengtson, P. Buckland, P. H. Enckell & A. M. Fosaa (eds.) Dorete – her book:– being a tribute to Dorete Bloch and to Faroese nature. Annales Societatis Scientiarum Færoensis Supplementum 52, 187-215. Faroe University Press.
  35. Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, E. & Buckland, P.I. (2004). “Fossil insects and the Neolithic: Methods and potencial”. ANTAEUS 27, pp. 235-252. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/bucklandetal2004_antaeus.pdf
  36. Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, E. & Buckland, P.I. (2004). “What’s eating Halvdan the Black? Fossil insects and the study of a burial mound in its landscape context”. In J. Henning Larsen & P. Rolfsen (eds), Halvdanshaugen – arkeologi, historie og naturvetenskap. University Museum of Cultural Heritage, Occasional papers 3. Oslo University. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/bucklandetal2004_halvdan.pdf
  37. Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, P., Buckland, P.I., Perdikaris, S. & Skidmore, P. (2006). “Insect faunas from Medieval Langenes in Arctic Norway”. In Engelmark, R & Linderholm, J (eds), SMIA VIII – Proceedings from the VIII Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods In Archaeology, Umeå, Sweden, 2001. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/bucklandetal2006_langenes.pdf
  38. Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, E. & Sveinbjarnardóttir, G. 2009. A failed invader in the North Atlantic, the case of Aglenus brunneus Gyll. (Col., Colydiidae), a blind flightless beetle from Iceland. Biol Invasions, 11:1239–1245 DOI 10.1007/s10530-008-9339-6
  39. Buckland, P.I. 2000. An introduction to Palaeoentomology in Archaeology and the BUGS Database Management System. Umea Universitet. Sweden. 62 pp. (Magister thesis). Available here: http://www.bugscep.com/phil/publications/buckland2000_cdpaper.pdf
  40. Buckland, P.I. (2007). “The Development and Implementation of Software for Palaeoenvironmental and Palaeoclimatological Research: The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP)”. PhD thesis, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Department of Archaeology & Sámi Studies. University of Umeå, Sweden. Archaeology and Environment 23, 236 pp + CD. URL: http://www.diva-portal.org/umu/abstract.xsql?dbid=1105
  41. Buckland, P.I. 2008. Subfossil species. In Duff, A.G., Checklist of Beetles of the British Isles, 2008 edition. A.G. Duff, Wells, Somerset, United Kingdom. http://www.coleopterist.org.uk/checklist.htm
  42. Buckland, P.I. 2009. The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP): The Development and Implementation of Software for Palaeoenvironmental and Palaeoclimatological Research. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. (PhD thesis reprint)
  43. Buckland, P.I. 2010. “SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database. An international research cyber-infrastructure for studying past changes in climate, environment and human activities”. Journal of Northern Studies. No.1 2010. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/Buckland2010_jns.pdf
  44. Buckland, P.I. 2010. “Environmental Archaeology, Climate Change and E-Science”. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok, Thule. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/buckland2010_thule.pdf
  45. Buckland, P.I. (2011). Freeing information to the people. International Innovation, EuroFocus, 2011 Issue 4: Nordic Spotlight, pp. 51-53. Download here, or see the whole issue here
  46. Buckland, P.I. (2014). The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) database: 1000 sites and half a million fossils later. Quaternary International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2014.01.030
  47. Buckland, P. I. (2014). SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database. Inter-linking multiproxy environmental data with archaeological investigations and ecology.. In: Graeme Earl, Tim Sly, Angeliki Chrysanthi, Patricia Murrieta-Flores, Constantinos Papadopoulos, Iza Romanowska & David Wheatley (Ed.), CAA2012, Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Southampton, England.: . Paper presented at Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA). Amsterdam.
  48. Buckland, P. I. 2017. Lessons from extinctions. Wood Wise Woodland Conservation News, 22–27. https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/mediafile/100819343/j-wt-200717-summer-2017.pdf?cb=f30a96a50b404614b0bbd0c330c44d9b
  49. Buckland, P.I., Bateman, M.D., Bennike, O., Buckland, P.C., Chase, B.M., Frederick, C., Greenwood, M., Murton, J., Murton, D. and Panagiotakopulu, E., 2019. Mid-Devensian climate and landscape in England: new data from Finningley, South Yorkshire. Royal Society open science, 6(7), p.190577.
  50. Buckland, P.I. & Buckland, P.C. (2002). “How can a database full of Bugs help reconstruct the climate?”. In Burenhult, G & Arvidsson, J (eds),  Archaeological Informatics - Pushing the Envelope - CAA 2001 -  Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology,  Proceedings of the 29th Conference, Gotland, April 2001. BAR  International Series 1016. pp. 453-461. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/buckland&buckland2002_caa.pdf
  51. Buckland, P.I. & Buckland, P.C. 2012. Species found as fossils in Quaternary sediments. In Duff, A.G., Checklist of Beetles of the British Isles, 2012 edition. A.G. Duff, Wells, Somerset, United Kingdom. pp. 127-130. http://www.coleopterist.org.uk/checklist.htm
  52. Buckland, P. I., & Buckland, P. C. (2014). BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on. Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society), 38(1), 21-28. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261297772...or http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:709837
  53. Buckland, P. I., & Buckland, P. C. (2018). Species found as fossils in Quaternary sediments. In Checklist of beetles of the British Isles : with a chapter on fossil beetles (3rd ed., pp. 171–174). Iver: Pemberley Books. Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151143
  54. Buckland, P. I., Buckland, P. C. & Olsson, F. (2014). Paleoentomology: Insects and other Arthropods in Environmental Archaeology. In: In Smith, C., Lanteri, C., Reid, J., Smith, J. & Krauss, T.M. (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology: . Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
  55. Buckland, P. I., Buckland, P. C., & Olsson, F. (2018). Paleoentomology : Insects and Other Arthropods in Environmental Archaeology. In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology (2nd ed.). Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_2333-2
  56. Buckland, P.I., Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, E. & Sadler, J.P. (2004) “A Database for Egyptian Entomology”. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, 81. Abstract at http://www.ees.eg.net/bdf/New%20Folder/B-2004.pdf (page 13) http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/bucklandetal_Egbugs.pdf
  57. Buckland, P.I. & Buckland, P.C. 2006. BugsCEP Coleopteran Ecology Package. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2006-116. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA. URL: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/insect.html
  58. Buckland, P.I. and Buckland, P.C., 2019. When a ‘Waterhole’Is Full of Dung: An Illustration of the Importance of Environmental Evidence for Refining Archaeological Interpretation of Excavated Features. Archaeometry.
  59. Buckland, P.I., Dell'Unto, N. and Pálsson, G., 2018. To tree, or not to tree? On the Empirical Basis for Having Past Landscapes to Experience. DHQ: Digital Humanities Quarterly, 12(3).
  60. Buckland, P. I. & Eriksson, E. J. (2014). Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD). In: Smith, C., Lanteri, C., Reid, J., Smith, J. & Krauss, T.M (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology: . Springer Science+Business Media B.V..
  61. Buckland, P.I., Eriksson, E.J., Linderholm, J., Viklund, K., Engelmark, R., Palm, F., Svensson, P., Buckland, P.C., Panagiotakopulu, E. & Olofsson, J. 2010. “Integrating Human Dimensions of Arctic Palaeoenvironmental Science: SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database”. Journal of Archaeological Science. Volume 38 (2),  pp. 345-351.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2010.09.011. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/Bucklandetalinpress_jas.pdf
  62. Buckland, P.I., Olofsson, J. & Engelmark, R. 2006. SEAD – Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, planning report. MAL Reports 2006-31. http://www.sead.se/seadplanningreport.pdf
  63. Buckland, P. I. & Sjölander, M. (2017). Blombocken avslöjar forntiden : Databaser. Populär arkeologi, (5), 28–31.
  64. Buckland, P. I., Sjölander, M., & Eriksson, E. J. (2018). Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD). In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology (2nd ed.). Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1
  65. Buckland, P.I., Yuan Zhuo, D. & Buckland, P.C. (1997). “Towards an Expert System in Palaeoentomology”. In A.C. Ashworth, P.C. Buckland & J.P. Sadler (eds), “Studies in Quaternary Entomology - An Inordinate Fondness for Insects”. Quaternary Proceedings No.5, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester. pp. 71-77. http://bugscep.com/phil/publications/bucklandetal1997_expert.pdf
  66. Böcher, Jens. 2012. Interglacial insects and their possible survival in Greenland during the last glacial stage. Boreas. DOI: 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2012.00251.x
  67. Böcher, Jens, Bennike, Ole & Bernd Wagner. 2012. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland. Polar Research 2012, 31, 18367, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/polar.v31i0.18367
  68. Candy, I., White, T. S., & Elias, S. (2016). How warm was Britain during the Last Interglacial? A critical review of Ipswichian (MIS 5e) palaeotemperature reconstructions. Journal of Quaternary Science, 31(8), 857-868. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jqs.2910/full
  69. Caseldine CJ, Dinnin MH, Hendon D, Langdon PG (2004) The Holocene development of the Icelandic biota and its palaeoclimatic significance. In Housley RA, Coles G (eds) Atlantic connections and adaptations: symposia of the association for environmental archaeology, No. 21, Oxbow Books, pp 182–190.
  70. Crabtree, P.J., Reilly, E., Wouters, B., Devos, Y., Bellens, T. and Schryvers, A., 2017. Environmental evidence from early urban Antwerp: New data from archaeology, micromorphology, macrofauna and insect remains. Quaternary International, 460, pp.108-123.
  71. Davies, S. (2012). Invertebrate analysis. In, J. Proctor, Faverdale,Darlington: excavations at a major settlement in the northern frontier zone of Roman Britain, 158-160. Durham County Council, Durham.
  72. Davis, S. R. (2014) Insect remains. In, M. J. Randerson, A Late Iron Age and Romano-British site at Gale Common, North Yorkshire. Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 86 , 67-69.
  73. Davis, S.R., Brown, A.G., Dinnin, M.H. 2007. Floodplain connectivity, disturbance and change: a paleoentomological investigation of floodplain ecology from south-west England. J Anim Ecol 76, 276-288.
  74. Denton, K. G. (2012). An investigation of mid to late Holocene fossil insects from raised bogs in the Irish midlands (Doctoral dissertation, University of London). http://digirep.rhul.ac.uk/file/d8988f0f-439c-7f37-9821-bb292821b1ea/8/2012DentonKGPhD.pdf
  75. Dézerald, O., Latorre, C., Betancourt, J.L., Vera, G.A.B. and González, A.L., 2019. Ecological fidelity and spatiotemporal resolution of arthropod death assemblages from rodent middens in the central Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Quaternary Science Reviews, 210, pp.15-25.
  76. Dussault, F., Forbes, V., & Bain, A. (2014). Archaeoentomology at Tatsip Ataa: Evidence for the Use of Local Resources and Daily Life in the Norse Eastern Settlement, Greenland. Journal of the North Atlantic, 6, 14-28. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3721/037.002.sp604
  77. Dussault, F., Bell, T. J., & Grimes, V. (2017). Archaeoentomological Perspectives on Dorset Occupations in Newfoundland: A Case Study from the Site of Phillip’s Garden (EeBi-1). ARCTIC, 69(5), 1-15. https://arctic.journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/arctic/index.php/arctic/article/download/4660/4857
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